DNA tests are vital nowadays. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the core in which the existence of species is saved. They are different from species to species. Even they are different between the individuals of species. There are two types of DNA test. One is genealogical DNA test that identifies an ancestor. Paternal DNA test identifies parents of the individual.
A DNA test is devised for looking at the genome of a person. This test is usually performed for differentiating one genome of a person to another. They are not meant for determination of diseases or have any medical purpose.
The first step for DNA test is a collection of the sample. The sample for DNA test is collected by check scrapping, spit cups, chewing gums and mouthwash. These samples are collected at DNA test clinic or home.
Genealogical DNA test:
There are two types of DNA test. One is Lineal Ancestry (mitochondrial DNA mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Y-DNA), and other is Ancestry autosomal (atDNA). A DNA test examines 700,000 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism).
Matching of DNA:
The matching of DNA requires measurement in centiMorgens (cM). If two individual are tested, and most of their DNA gets matched, they are considered to be relatives. As the DNA is inherited randomly, the exact mechanism of transfer of the DNA cannot be predicted. Because of it, all 5th cousins can be identified. The identification of 6th cousins by DNA test is controversial. There are two types of DNA test. HVR1 and HVR2. The other is for mitochondria.
DNA in a community:
Usually, the earth is divided into certain groups. Each group has its DNA outlook. There are almost 25 groups in this manner. Thus, with the aid of these DNA test, the ancestor of a person can be identified easily.
Mitochondrial DNA is very small. Mitochondrial DNA is usually transferred from mother to child.There is very small amount of variation in its transfer. A perfect match of mitochondrial DNA of one with other via DNA test can be used to identify an ancestor.
Parenting DNA test:
This test is performed for identification of parents of a child. It is the most authentic way of identification of this test. The techniques for identification of parent is restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This can be done even when the woman is pregnant and even from the blood sample.
What is tested?
The autosomal chromosomes of people are same. It is the sex chromosomes that are different. For identification of parent the sex chromosomes are identifiers and compared. Mitochondrial DNA only comes from the mother so can only be used for identification of mother.
So far, DNA test has many uses. One of the uses of DNA test is studying or identification of ancestor. Another use of DNA test is the identification of parents of an individual. These tests can be performed on any individual. The important aspect of a DNA test is taking a sample that needs to be taken correctly.